CHICKEN

Kingdom: Animalia... Phylum: Chordata... Class: Aves... Order: Galiformes.. .Family: Phasianidae... Genus: Gallus... Species: G. Gallus.

Rooster rooster2

Roosters can usually be differentiated from hens by their striking plumage, marked by long flowing tails and shiny, pointed feathers on their necks and backs (the hackles and saddle) – these are often colored differently from the hackles and saddles of females.
However, in some breeds, such as the Sebright, the cock has only slightly pointed neck feathers, the same colour as the hen's. The identification must be made by looking at the comb, or eventually from the development of spurs on the male's legs (in a few breeds and in certain hybrids the male and female chicks may be differentiated by colour). Adult chickens have a fleshy crest on their heads called a comb or cockscomb, and hanging flaps of skin either side under their beaks called wattles. These organs help to cool the bird by redirecting blood flow to the skin. Both the adult male and female have wattles and combs, but in most breeds these are more prominent in males.

poule et coq

BODY

Chickens in nature may live for five to eleven years depending on the breed. In commercial intensive farming, a meat chicken generally lives only six weeks before slaughter. A free range or organic meat chicken will usually be slaughtered at about 14 weeks. Hens of special laying breeds may produce as many as 300 eggs a year. After 12 months, the hen's egg-laying ability starts to decline, and commercial laying hens are then slaughtered and used in baby foods, pet foods, pies and other processed foods.
Domestic chickens are typically fed commercially prepared feed that includes a protein source as well as grains, and for laying hens, a source of calcium carbonate for eggshells. Chickens often scratch at the soil to search for seeds, insects and even larger animals such as lizards or young mice. Cannibalism may occur, usually under overcrowded conditions, and in intensive commercial egg and meat production this is controlled by trimming the beak (removing two thirds of the top half and occasionally one third of the lower half of the beak).

eggs
Domestic chickens are not capable of long distance flight, although lighter birds are generally capable of flying for short distances such as over fences or into trees (where they would naturally roost). Chickens will sometimes fly to explore their surroundings, but usually do so only to flee perceived danger. Because of the risk of escape, chickens raised in open-air pens often have one of their wings clipped by the breeder; the tips of the longest feathers on one of the wings are cut, resulting in unbalanced flight which the bird cannot sustain for more than a few meters, and it is thus discouraged from flying at all.
In 2006, scientists researching the ancestry of birds "turned on" a chicken recessive gene, talpid2, and found that the embryo jaws initiated formation of teeth, like those found in ancient bird fossils. John Fallon the overseer of the project stated that chickens have "...retained the ability to make teeth, under certain conditions. In the United States, chickens were raised primarily on family farms until roughly 1960. Originally, the primary value in poultry keeping was eggs, and meat was considered a byproduct of egg production. Soon after poultry keeping gained the attention of agricultural researchers (around 1896), improvements in nutrition and management made poultry keeping more profitable and businesslike.
Prior to about 1910, chicken was served primarily on special occasions or Sunday dinner. In 2004, 8.9 billion chickens were slaughtered in the United States. There is no federal law that regulates the humane treatment of chickens.

chicks

MIND

In Indonesia the chicken has great significance during the Hindu cremation ceremony. A chicken is considered a channel for evil spirits which may be present during the ceremony. A chicken is tethered by the leg and kept present at the ceremony for its duration to ensure that any evil spirits present during the ceremony go into the chicken and not the family members present. The chicken is then taken home and returns to its normal life.
In ancient Greece, the chicken was not normally used for sacrifices, perhaps because it was still considered an exotic animal. Because of its valour, the cock is found as an attribute of Ares, Heracles, and Athena. The alleged last words of Socrates as he died from hemlock poisoning, as recounted by Plato, were "Crito, I owe a cock to Asclepius; will you remember to pay the debt?", signifying that death was a cure for the illness of life.
The Greeks believed that even lions were afraid of cocks. Several of Aesop's Fables reference this belief. In the cult of Mithras, the cock was a symbol of the divine light and a guardian against evil.
In many Central European folk tales, the devil is believed to flee at the first crowing of a cock.
In traditional Jewish practice, a chicken is swung around the head and then slaughtered on the afternoon before Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, in a ritual called kapparos. The sacrifice of the chicken is to receive atonement, for the bird takes on all the person's sins in kapparos. The meat is then donated to the poor. A woman brings a hen for the ceremony, while a man brings a rooster. Although not actually a sacrifice in the biblical sense, the death of the chicken reminds the penitent sinner that his or her life is in God's hands. The Talmud speaks of learning "courtesy toward one's mate" from the rooster. This might refer to the fact that when a rooster finds something good to eat, he calls his hens to eat first.
The chicken is one of the Zodiac symbols of the Chinese calendar. Also in Chinese religion, a cooked chicken as a religious offering is usually limited to ancestor veneration and worship of village deities. Vegetarian deities such as the Buddha are not one of the recipients of such offerings. Under some observations, an offering of chicken is presented with "serious" prayer (while roasted pork is offered during a joyous celebration). In Confucian Chinese Weddings, a chicken can be used as a substitute for one who is seriously ill or not available (e.g sudden death) to attend the ceremony. A red silk scarf is placed on the chicken's head and a close relative of the absent bride/groom holds the chicken so the ceremony may proceed. However, this practice is rare today.

The first pictures of chickens in Europe are found on Corinthian pottery of the 7th century BCE. The poet Cratinus calls the chicken "the Persian alarm". Pictures of chickens are found on Greek red figure and black-figure pottery. In ancient Greece, chickens were still rare and were a rather prestigious food for symposia. Delos seems to have been a centre of chicken breeding. Chickens, together with dogs and pigs, were the domestic animals of the Lapita culture, the first Neolithic culture of Oceania. Chickens were spread by Polynesian seafarers and reached Easter Island in the 12th century CE, where they were the only domestic animal.
The Romans used chickens for oracles, both when flying and when feeding, If the chickens stayed in their cage, made noises, beat their wings or flew away, the omen was bad; if they ate greedily, the omen was good.
In 249 BC, the Roman general Publius Claudius Pulcher had his chickens thrown overboard when they refused to feed before the battle of Drepana, saying "If they won't eat, perhaps they will drink." He promptly lost the battle against the Carthaginians and 93 Roman ships were sunk. Back in Rome, he was tried for impiety and heavily fined.

SOUL

BODY.......... MIND

....................MAIN INDEX

#1-ANIMALS ...... #1-SOCIETY

#2-ENERGIES ..... .#2-SPORT

#3-PLANTS ........ #3-EDUCATION

#4-MINERALS ......#4-SCIENCE

........................................#5-THINGS

........................................#6-EATING

........................................#7-FINANCE

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FACTS
Translation--Traducción--Traduction
English
: Chicken
A chicken can have more than 300 eggs each year.

Español: Pollo
Una gallina puede haber mas de 300 huevos cada ano

Français: Poulet
Une poule peut avoir plus de 300 oeufs par année.

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