Kingdom: Animalia... Phylum: Chordata... Class: Mammalia... Order: Carnivora.. .Family: Canidea... Genus: Canis... Species: C.Lupus... Subspecies: C. L.Familiaris.

working_dog nice_dog bull_dog

The DOG (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated animal. It`s a subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. The dog has developed into hundreds of varied breeds.
The domestic dog is always in modern times, the most widely-kept working and companion animal in human history. There are estimated to be nearly a half a billion dogs in the world.
Height measured to the withers ranges from a few inches in the Chihuahua to a few feet in the Irish Wolfhound; color varies from white through grays, to browns and blacks. There is also a wide variation of patterns; and, coats can be very short to many centimeters long, from coarse hair to something akin to wool, straight or curly, or smooth.

The English word dog, in common usage, refers to the domestic pet dog, Canis lupus familiaris. The species was originally classified as Canis familiaris. In 1993, dogs were reclassified as a subspecies of the gray wolf, Canis lupus. "Dog" is sometimes used to refer collectively to any mammal belonging to the family Canidae (as in "the dog family"), such as wolves, foxes, and coyotes. A few animals have "dog" in their common names but are not canids, such as the prairie dog, Raccoon Dog and the African Wild Dog.
In breeding circles, a male canine is referred to as a dog, while a female canine is called a bitch. The father of a litter is called the sire, and the mother of a litter is called the dam. Offspring are generally called pups or puppies until they are about a year old. A group of offspring is a litter.



Dogs are valued for their intelligence. This intelligence is expressed differently with different breeds and individuals, however. For example, Border Collies are noted for their ability to learn commands, while other breeds may not be so motivated towards obedience, but instead show their cleverness in devising ways to steal food or escape from a yard. Being highly adaptable animals themselves, dogs have learned to do many jobs as required by humans over the generations. Dogs are employed in various roles across the globe, proving invaluable assets in areas such as search-and-rescue; law enforcement (including attack dogs, sniffer dogs and tracking dogs); guards for livestock, people or property; herding; Arctic exploration sled-pullers; guiding the blind and acting as a pair of ears for the deaf; assisting with hunting, and a great many other roles which they may be trained to assume. Most dogs rarely have to deal with complex tasks and are unlikely to learn relatively complicated activities (such as opening doors) unaided. Some dogs (such as guide dogs for the visually impaired) are specially trained to recognize and avoid dangerous situations.
The meaning of "intelligence" in general, not only in reference to dogs, is hard to define. Some tests measure problem-solving abilities and others test the ability to learn in comparison to others of the same age. Defining it for dogs is just as difficult. It is likely that dogs do not have the ability to premeditate an action to solve a problem.
For example, the ability to learn quickly could be a sign of intelligence. Conversely it could be interpreted as a sign of a desire to please. In contrast, some dogs who do not learn very quickly may have other talents. An example is breeds that are not particularly interested in pleasing their owners, such as Siberian Huskies. Huskies are often fascinated with the myriad of possibilities for escaping from yards, catching small animals, and often figuring out on their own numerous inventive ways of doing both.
Assistance dogs are also required to be obedient at all times. This means they must learn a tremendous number of commands, understand how to act in a large variety of situations, and recognize threats to their human companion, some of which they might never before have encountered.

Owners of dogs often enter them in competitions, whether show (breed conformation shows) or sports, including dog racing & dog sledding. The winners garner much prestige and prize money. These dogs are often bred specifically for competition, which may not be entirely beneficial for the breeds due to the magnification of hereditary defects. Dog agility is a sport in which dogs complete a timed obstacle course. Dogsled racing is a winter sport where a team of dogs, usually high performance mixed breed dogs called Alaskan Huskies or Eurohounds, pull a sled and driver (called a musher). The Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race is perhaps the most famous of these races. Dog sledding is an ancient form of transportation and still a very effective way of moving freight across this type of terrain. Dog racing, almost always Greyhounds, involves dogs racing at betting tracks in a sport not unlike horseracing, reaching speeds of 40 miles per hour. Elsewhere, Dachshunds are often raced, as a humorous sidelight in charity events. Dog fighting and dog baiting are blood sports involving dogs. They are illegal. The show dog, purebreds entered in conformation dog shows and evaluated by how closely they match the ideal characteristics of the breed. The Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show is one of the most famous of this type of competition.



Based on DNA evidence, the wolf ancestors of modern dogs diverged from other wolves around 100,000 years ago, and dogs were domesticated from those wolf ancestors well over 10,000 years ago. This date would make dogs the first species to be domesticated by humans. As humans migrated around the planet a variety of dog forms migrated with them. Evidence suggests that dogs were first domesticated in China, and some of the peoples who entered North America took dogs with them from Asia.

There are over 800 dog breeds, being recognized by kennel clubs worldwide. Many dogs, belong to no recognized breed. A few basic breed types have evolved gradually during the domesticated dog's relationship with humans since a long very time, but most modern breeds are of relatively recent derivation. Because of artificial selection, some breeds are highly specialized, and there is extraordinary morphological diversity across different breeds. The definition to easily define a breed, is that an individual may be considered of one breed as long as 75% of its parentage is of that breed. These considerations affect both pets and the show dogs entered in dog shows. The behavior and appearance of a dog of a particular breed can be predicted to a degree, while mixed-breed dogs show a broader range of innovative appearance and behavior. A breed is a group of animals that possesses a set of inherited characteristics that distinguishes it from other animals within the same species. Deliberately crossing two or more breeds is also a manner of establishing new breeds, but it is only a breed when offspring will reliably demonstrate that particular set of characteristics and qualities.

In domestic dogs, sexual maturity begins to happen around age 6 to 12 months for both males and females, although this can be delayed until up to two years old for some large breeds. Adolescence for most domestic dogs is around 12 to 15 months, beyond which they are for the most part more adult than puppy. As with other domesticated species, domestication has selectively bred for higher libido and earlier and more frequent breeding cycles in dogs, than in their wild ancestors. Dogs remain reproductively active until old age
Most female dogs have their first estrous cycle between 6 and 12 months, although some larger breeds delay until as late as 2 years. Females experience estrous cycles biannually ,during which her body prepares for pregnancy, and at the peak she will come into estrus, during which time she will be mentally and physically receptive to copulation.
Dogs bear their litters roughly 56 to 72 days after fertilization, although the length of gestation can vary. An average litter consists of about six puppies, though this number may vary widely based on the breed of dog. Toy dogs generally produce from one to four puppies in each litter, while much larger breeds may average as many as 12 pups in each litter.

Dogs are susceptible to various diseases, ailments, and poisons, some of which affect humans in the same way, others of which are unique to dogs. Dogs, like all mammals, are also susceptible to heat exhaustion when dealing with high levels of humidity and/or extreme temperatures.
Infectious diseases commonly associated with dogs include rabies (hydrophobia), canine parvovirus, and canine distemper. Inherited diseases of dogs can include a wide range from elbow or hip dysplasia and medial patellar luxation to epilepsy and pulmonic stenosis. Canines can get just about anything a human can get (excluding many infections which are species specific) like hypothyroidism, cancer, dental disease, heart disease, etc.
Two serious medical conditions affecting dogs are pyometra, affecting unspayed females of all types and ages, and bloat, which affects the larger breeds or deep chested dogs. Both of these are acute conditions, and can kill rapidly; owners of dogs which may be at risk should learn about such conditions as part of good animal care. Common external parasites are various species of fleas, ticks, and mites. Internal parasites include hookworms, tapeworms, roundworms, and heartworms. See also CVBD (Canine Vector-Borne Diseases).

The typical lifespan of dogs varies widely among breeds. Based on questionnaire surveys of owners in the UK, Denmark, and the USA/Canada, the median longevity of most dog breeds is between 10 and 13 years. The breed with the dubious distinction of the shortest lifespan (among breeds for which there is a questionnaire survey with a reasonable sample size) is the Dogue de Bordeaux with a median longevity of about 5.2 years, but several breeds, including Miniature Bull Terrier, Bulldog, Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever, Bloodhound, Irish Wolfhound, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Great Dane, and Mastiff, are nearly as short-lived, with median longevities between 6 and 7 years. On the other end of the spectrum, the longest-lived breeds, including Toy Poodle, Border Terrier, Miniature Dachshund, Miniature Poodle, and Tibetan Spaniel, have median longevities between 14 and 15 years. The median longevity of mixed breed dogs (average of all sizes) is one or more years longer than that of purebred dogs (all breeds averaged). As a rule of thumb, small breeds are longer-lived than large breeds, but some of the longest lived large breeds have median longevities nearly as large as those of the shortest lived small breeds, and some of the breeds with the shortest longevities are medium-sized.
"Median longevity" refers to the age at which half the dogs in a population have died and half are still alive. Individual dogs, even in breeds with low median longevities, may live well beyond the median. The dog widely reported to be the longest-lived on record is "Bluey," purportedly born in 1910 in Australia. He died in 1939 at the age of 29.5 years. Bluey is usually identified as an Australia Cattle Dog, but the first Australian Cattle Dog breed standard was written in 1902, only eight years before Bluey's birth. It is unclear how closely Bluey was related to the breed as it exists today. The Bluey record is anecdotal and unverified. The longest verified records are of dogs living to 24 years.

Compared to equally sized wolves, dogs tend to have 20% smaller skulls and 10% smaller brains, as well as proportionately smaller teeth than other canid species. Dogs require less calories to function than wolves. Dogs have thicker skins than similarly-sized wolves. Inuits tend to favour dog skin over wolf skin due to the formers resistance to tear. Unlike wolves, but like coyotes, domestic dogs have sweat glands on their pawpads. The paws of a dog are half the size of those of a wolf, and their tails tend to curl upwards, another trait not found in wolves.

Like most mammals, dogs have a color vision equivalent to red-green color blindness in humans. Different breeds of dogs have different eye shapes and dimensions, and they also have different retina configurations. Dogs with long noses have a "visual streak" which runs across the width of the retina and gives them a very wide field vision. Those with short noses have an "area centralis" — a central patch with up to three times the density of nerve endings, so much more quality. A dog can identify a sound's location much faster than a human can, as well as hear sounds up to four times the distance that humans are able to. Those with more natural ear shapes, like those of wild canids like the fox, generally hear better than those with the floppier ears of many domesticated species.
Dogs detect sounds as low as the 16 to 20 Hz frequency range (compared to 20 to 70 Hz for humans) and above 45 kHz (compared to 13 to 20 kHz for humans), and in addition have a degree of ear mobility that helps them to rapidly pinpoint the exact location of a sound. Eighteen or more muscles can tilt, rotate and raise or lower a dog's ear.


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Translation--Traducción--TraductionEnglish: Dogs
A year in a dog`s life is the equivalent to 9 years in a human`s life!

Español: Perros
Una ano en la vida de un perro, es el mismo que nueve anos in la vida de un hombre!

Français: Chiens
Une année dans la vie d`un chien est l`équivalent de 9 ans dans la vie d`un être humain!

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