FROGS

SOUL

Kingdom: Animalia... Phylum: Chordata... Class: Vertebrata... Subclass: Amphibia... Order: Anura... Family: Ranidae... Genus: Rana...

mating

The Frog is an amphibian in the order Anura, which  means "tail-less", from Greek an-, without + oura, tail… Also it is formerly referred as Salientia, which is the Latin saltare… jump.
The earliest known (proto) frog is Triadobatrachus massinoti, from the 250 million year old early Triassic of Madagascar. The earliest true frog is Vieraella herbsti, from the early Jurassic 188–213 million years ago. The earliest full fossil record of a modern frog is of sanyanlichan, which lived 125 million years ago and had all modern frog features, but bore 9 presacral vertebrae instead of the 8 of modern frogs, apparently still being a transitional species. Frog fossils have been found on all continents, including Antarctica.

frog1 frogs spawn - oeufs de grenouille

MIND

frog2
The common the uses of the terms "frog" usually refers to species that are aquatic or semi-aquatic with smooth and/or moist skins, and the term "toad" generally refers to species that tend to be terrestrial with dry, warty skin.
Frogs and toads are broadly classified into three suborders: Archaeobatrachia, which includes four families of primitive frogs; Mesobatrachia, which includes five families of more evolutionary intermediate frogs; and Neobatrachia, by far the largest group, which contains the remaining 24 families of "modern" frogs, including most common species throughout the world.
Frogs feature prominently in folklore, fairy tales and popular culture. They tend to be portrayed as benign, ugly, clumsy, but with hidden talents. Examples include "The Frog Prince" is a fairy tale of a frog who turns into a handsome prince once kissed. Kermit the Frog, character of Sesame Street and The Muppet Show.

green frog

Frogs are raised commercially for several purposes. Frogs are used as a food source; frog legs are a delicacy in China, France, the Philippines, the north of Greece and in many swampy parts of North America. Dead frogs are sometimes used for dissections in high school and university anatomy classes. Frogs are also used in cloning research and other branches of embryology because. Frogs are among the closest living relatives of man to lack egg shells characteristic of most other vertebrates, and therefore facilitate observations of early development. In 1952, Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King cloned a frog.

Frog populations have declined dramatically since the 1950s: more than one third of species are believed to be threatened with extinction and more than 120 species are suspected to be extinct since the 1980s. Many environmental scientists believe that amphibians, including frogs, are excellent biological indicators of broader ecosystem health problems.
Zoos and aquariums around the world have named 2008 the Year of the Frog, to draw attention to some issues…
A Canadian study conducted in 2006 proposed heavy traffic near frog habitats as a large threat to frog populations. In May 2007, it was reported the application of certain probiotic bacteria could protect amphibians from chytridiomycosis.

BODY

Many characteristics are not shared by all of the approximately 5,250 described frog species. However, some general characteristics distinguish them from other amphibians. Frogs are usually well suited to jumping, with long hind legs and elongated ankle bones. They have a short vertebral column, with no more than ten free vertebrae, followed by a fused tailbone typically resulting in being tailless.

Frogs range in size from 10 mm to 300 mm. They do not have anything that could be called teeth on their lower jaw, so they usually swallow their food whole. The so-called "teeth" are mainly used to hold the prey and keep it in place till they can get a good grip on it and squash their eyeballs down to swallow their meal. Toads, however, do not have any teeth. The Skin is where frogs are able to absorb water directly, especially around the pelvic area. Camouflage is a common defensive mechanism in frogs. Most camouflaged frogs are nocturnal, which adds to their ability to hide.  Many frogs contain mild toxins that make them unpalatable to potential predators. For example, all toads have large poison glands.
The life cycle of a frog starts with an egg. A female generally lays frogspawn, or egg masses containing thousands of eggs, in water. Frogs can lay up to 20,000 eggs. The length of the egg stage depends on the species and environmental conditions, aquatic eggs generally hatch within one week.
Eggs hatch and continue life as tadpoles. Tadpoles are aquatic, lack front and hind legs, and have gills for respiration and tails with fins for swimming. Tadpoles are typically herbivorous, feeding mostly on algae.  The tadpole stage may be as short as a week, or tadpoles may overwinter and metamorphose the following year in some species. 
At the end of the tadpole stage, frogs undergo a metamorphosis where they transition into adult form. Metamorphosis involves a dramatic transformation of morphology and physiology, as tadpoles develop hind legs, then front legs, lose their gills and develop lungs. Their intestines shorten as they shift from an herbivorous to a carnivorous diet. Eyes migrate rostrally and dorsally, allowing for binocular vision exhibited by the adult frog. This shift in eye position mirrors the shift from prey to predator, as the tadpole develops and depends less upon a larger and wider field of vision and more upon depth perception. The final stage of development then is from froglet to adult frog.  After metamorphosis, young adults may leave the water and disperse into terrestrial habitats, or continue to live in the aquatic habitat as adults. Almost all species of frogs are carnivorous as adults. A few of the larger species may eat small fish or smaller frogs even. Some frogs use their sticky tongues to catch fast-moving prey, while others capture their prey and force it into their mouths with their hands. However, there are a very few species of frogs that primarily eat plants. Frogs and toads can live for many years though little is known about their life span in the wild captive frogs and toads are recorded living up to 40 years.

Once adult frogs reach maturity, they will assemble at a water source such as a pond or stream to breed. Many frogs return to the bodies of water where they were born. Male frogs call to attract a mate, collectively becoming a chorus of frogs. The call is unique to the species, and will attract females of that species. Some frog calls are so loud, they can be heard up to a mile away. In most calling frogs, the sound is amplified by one or more vocal sacs, membranes of skin under the throat or on the corner of the mouth.  The main reason for calling is to allow males to attract a mate. Males call either individually or in a group called a chorus. Females of many frog species produce calls reciprocal to the males. Many species also have a territorial call that is used to chase away other males. All of these calls are emitted with the mouth of the frog closed. The male and female frogs then goes for the mounting of the female by gripping her tightly. Fertilization is external, the egg and sperm meet outside of the body. The female releases her eggs, which the male frog covers with a sperm solution. The eggs then swell and develop a protective coating. The eggs are typically brown or black, with a clear, gelatin-like covering.
Most temperate species of frogs reproduce between late autumn and early spring.

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FACTS
Translation--Traducción--TraductionEnglish: Frogs
Frogs can lay up to 20,000 eggs

Español : Ranas
Las Ranas puedes haver 20,000 huevos

Français: Grenouilles
Les Grenouilles peuvent pondre jusqu`à 20,000 oeufs

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