The PIG is normally given the scientific name Sus scrofa domestica, though some taxonomists use the term S. domestica, reserving S. scrofa for the wild boar. So in a way, it’s known properly as a Domestic Pig.
Pigs are believed to have been domesticated from wild boar as early as 7000 BC in the Near East and, separately, in China. DNA evidence from sub-fossil remains of teeth and jawbones of Neolithic pigs in Europe shows that the first domestic pigs there had been brought from the Near East. It appears that this stimulated the domestication of European wild boar, effectively forming a third domestication event the Near Eastern genes later died out in European pigs, and domesticated European pigs were then exported in turn to the ancient Near East. The distinction between wild and domestic animals is slight. Escaped domestic pigs have become feral in many parts of the world and have caused substantial environmental damage.
Pigs have been domesticated since ancient times in the Old World and are known for their exceptional intelligence. Pigs are particularly valued in China and on certain oceanic islands, where their self-sufficiency allows them to be turned loose, although the practice is not without its drawbacks.
Pigs can be trained to perform numerous simple tasks and tricks. Recently, they have enjoyed a measure of popularity as house pets, particularly the dwarf breeds.
Pigs are frequently referenced in culture and are a popular topic for idioms and famous quotes. The dietary laws of Judaism commonly known as “Kosher” forbid the eating of pork in any form, considering the pig to be a dirty animal. Some fundamental Christian denominations also consider pork unclean as food. In ancient Greece, a sow was an appropriate sacrifice to Demeter and had been her favorite animal since she had been the Great Goddess of archaic times. Initiates at the Eleusinian Mysteries began by sacrificing a pig. Islam forbids the eating of flesh of swine or pork in any form, because of its uncleanliness and its immodest nature. Thepig is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese Zodiac, related to the Chinese calendar. Believers in Chinese astrology associate each animal with certain personality traits.
A pig has a snout for a nose, small eyes, and a small tail, which may be curly, kinked, or straight. It has a thick body and short legs. There are four toes on each foot, with the two large middle toes used for walking.
Pigs are omnivores, which means that they consume both plants and animals. Pigs will scavenge and have been known to eat any kind of food, including dead insects, worms, tree bark, rotting carcasses, garbage, and even other pigs. In the wild, they are foraging animals, primarily eating leaves and grasses, roots, fruits and flowers. Occasionally, in captivity, pigs may eat their own young, often if they become severely stressed.
A typical pig has a large head with a long snout which is strengthened by a special bone called the prenasal bone and by a disk of cartilage in the tip. The snout is used to dig into the soil to find food and is a very sensitive sense organ. Pigs have a full set of 44 teeth. The canine teeth, called tusks, grow continually and are sharpened by the lowers and uppers rubbing against each other.
A female pig can become pregnant at around 8-18 months of age. She will then go into estrus every 21 days if not bred. Male pigs become sexually active at 8-10 months of age. A litter of piglets typically contains between 6 and 12 piglets.
Pigs do not have functional sweat glands, so pigs cool themselves using water or mud during hot weather. They also use mud as a form of sunscreen to protect their skin from sunburn. Mud also provides protection against flies and parasites.
Pigs that are allowed to forage may be watched by swineherds. Because of their foraging abilities and excellent sense of smell, they are used to find truffles in many European countries. Domesticated pigs are commonly raised as livestock by farmers for meat called pork, as well as for it’s leather. Their bristly hairs are also used for brushes. Some breeds of pigs, such as the Asian pot-bellied pig, are kept as pets. The presence of some diseases and parasites is one of the reasons why pork meat should always be well cooked or cured before eating. Pigs are susceptible to bronchitis and pneumonia. They have small lungs in relation to body size; for this reason, bronchitis or pneumonia can kill a pig quickly. Pigs can be aggressive and pig-induced injuries are relatively common in areas where pigs are reared or where they form part of the wild or feral fauna.
The pig is a very intelligent animal
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A litter of piglets is from 6 to 12
Una camada de cochinillos generalmente tiene entre 10 y 12 animales
Une littière de porcelets est de 6 à 12